Web standards include rules for:
If you are interested in learning more, check out the Mozilla Developer Network's documentation on Web Standards to see a non-exhaustive list of the organizations that set these rules and more.
A browser engine transforms the HTML and CSS source code into a visual and interactive representation on your computer's screen. It is also built to perform quickly and meet web standards. If you research browser engines online, take note that you'll see hits for "rendering engines" and "layout engines", two processes that are a part of browser engine functionality.
Even though companies who make web browsers are expected to meet international web standards, that doesn't mean that every browser out there has met all of those standards. Technology is constantly evolving, and new standards are developed regularly. This means that web browser companies need to keep up with the new standards that are released. This also means that some web browsers are behind on implementing new standards, or just plain outdated (like Internet Explorer).
Because of this, web developers need to consider browser compatibility. Browser compatibility is the ability for websites to function on multiple different web browsers.
It's not necessary to understand the compatibility table linked above, nor are we going to learn the ins and outs of browser compatibility in this program. We are discussing this now to create context on how web browsers work, and how they differ.
This lesson is meant as both an introduction to technologies that you'll work with in this section and as a context-building exercise. You do not have to remember the names of browser engines or every web standard in existence. You also do not need to worry about browser compatibility.
Just remember these items:
As we go along in this section, we'll reference back to the concepts in this lesson.