Lesson Monday

The primary focus of this section should be test-driven development, including writing more complex business logic along with tests. However, many students also want to incorporate images into their projects. While this should be a lower priority than using test-driven development (and adding images isn't required for this section's project), you are welcome to experiment with adding images if you have completed other key aspects of your project.

Why webpack for Images?

Now that we are using webpack as a module bundler, all of our source code is being combined in a single dist folder. For that reason, we need to use webpack to manage images and correctly add them to our dist directory.

Configuring webpack for Images

We'll need to add two packages to manage images with webpack. First, we'll install the file-loader package:

$ npm install file-loader --save-dev

Next, we'll install the html-loader package:

$ npm install [email protected] --save-dev

Finally, we need to configure webpack to use these new tools. We'll create two new entries in the rules array within the module object of webpack.config.js:


  test: /\.(gif|png|avif|jpe?g)$/,
  use: [
      loader: 'file-loader',
      options: {
        name: '[name].[ext]',
        outputPath: 'assets/images/'
  use: [


Let's walk through this new code:

  • The first test section states which file types this loader will be applied to. We list /\.(gif|png|avif|jpe?g)$/ to instruct webpack to handle .gif, .png, .jpg, .avif, and .jpeg extensions. If there is another file extension that we want the file loader to handle, we simply need to add it to the list in the webpack configuration.

  • use specifies file-loader as the webpack loader responsible for handling these file types. Because this dependency has more settings than other loaders, we add an options object with additional settings in key-value pairs:

    • name tells webpack what to name the image file it places in dist. By stating [name].[ext], we tell it to simply use the file's existing name and extension.
    • outputPath tells it where in dist it should place this image.
  • The second test section begins a new rule for .html files.

  • The value corresponding to the use key in this rule states .html file types should have our new html-loader applied to them. As stated in this loader's GitHub Documentation, this dependency invokes webpack to load the corresponding image resource for any <img> tags it spots in our HTML.

Saving Images in a Project

We can now begin adding images to our site. There's no strict, universal rule for where to place image files. However, it's common practice to house resources such as images, fonts, and icons in an assets/ directory that contains corresponding subdirectories for each type of resource, such as

  • assets/images/
  • assets/fonts/

We've configured webpack to use file-loader to output images to dist/assets/images/, and we'll go ahead and use this same naming for locating our images in our source code: src/assets/images/. Go ahead and create this directory and subdirectory now.

Next, we'll add an image. For this example we'll download this free stock image of a puppy from Unsplash.com and save it in a file named stock-puppy-photo.jpg in our src/assets/images directory.

Rendering webpack-Bundled Images

Now let's add our image to our HTML so we can see it in the browser. We'll add the following <img> tag to index.html:

<html lang="en-US">
  <div>Hello world!</div>
  <img src="./assets/images/stock-puppy-photo.jpg" alt="such a pup!">

We link to the location of our new image and add an alt property.

Let's see our new image in action. Close the project's development server if it's open, and run $ npm run start.